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Diabetes (2.0) CEU's

What is diabetes?

Diabetes is a problem with your body that causes blood glucose (sugar) levels to rise higher than normal. This is also called hyperglycemia. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes.

When you eat your body breaks food down into glucose and sends it into the blood. Insulin then helps move the glucose from the blood into your cells. When glucose enters your cells, it is either used as fuel for energy right away or stored for later use. In a person with diabetes, there is a problem with insulin. But, not all people with diabetes have the same problem.

The types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, and a condition called gestational diabetes, which happens when pregnant. If you have diabetes, your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t use the insulin it does make very well.



In type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At first, the pancreas makes extra insulin to make up for it. But, over time your pancreas isn’t able to keep up and can’t make enough insulin to keep your blood glucose levels normal. Type 2 is treated it with ifestyle changes, oral medications (pills), and insulin.

 Some people with type 2 can control their blood glucose with healthy eating and being active. But, your doctor may need to also prescribe oral medications or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse over time – even if you don’t need medications at first, you may need to later on.



In type 1, your body treats the cells that make insulin as invaders and destroys them. This can happen over a few weeks, months, or years. When enough of the cells are gone, your pancreas stops making insulin, or makes too little insulin.Without insulin, your blood glucose rises higher than normal, so the insulin needs to be replaced.


Scientists do not know the exact cause of type 2 diabetes. However, development of type 2
diabetes has been associated with several risk factors. These risk factors include:

• history of hyperglycemia, prediabetes, and/or gestational diabetes (GDM)

• overweight and obesity

• physical inactivity

• genetics

• family history

• race and ethnicity

• age

• high blood pressure

• abnormal cholesterol


The two goals of diabetes treatment are to make sure you feel well day-to-day and to prevent or delay long-term health problems. The best way to reach those goals are by:

• taking medications, if your doctor prescribes them

• planning your meals—choosing what, how much, and when to eat

• being physically active


Symptoms of High Blood Sugar

1.       Increased thirst

2.       Increased hunger

3.       Frequent need to urinate

4.       Dry itchy skin

5.       Tired or sleepy feeling

6.       Blurry vision

7.       Feeling sick to your stomach

8.       Breathing problems


High blood sugar can happen for many reasons:

1.       Not taking your medicine as prescribed

2.       Expired insulin (insulin that is too old or was not stored properly)

3.       Getting sick or having other kinds of stress (physical or emotional)

4.       Eating too much (especially carbohydrates)

5.       Not getting your normal activity or exercise

6.       Taking steroids or other medicines which can affect your blood sugar



Symptoms of Low Blood Sugar


 1.       Shaky or weak

2.       Sweaty

3.       Clumsy

4.       Fast heart beat (palpitations)

5.       Hungry

6.       Headache

7.       Lightheaded

8.       Nervous

9.       Confused

10.   Tired

11.   Angry

12.   Tingly around the mouth


 Some causes of low blood sugar are:

1.       Skipping or not finishing meals or snacks

2.       Taking too much medication/insulin

3.       Eating meals or snacks at different times

4.       Taking medication at different times

5.       Getting more exercise than usual

6.       Drinking alcohol


 When your blood sugar is not controlled, too much sugar stays in your blood a long time. That can damage blood vessels and nerves. This damage can cause:

1.       Kidney disease

2.       Blindness

3.       Nerve damage

4.       Foot problems

5.       Heart disease

6.       Stroke


For most people, good blood sugar levels are:


 ·         On waking up (before breakfast)              70 to 100

·         Before meals                                                70 to 100

·         2 hours after meals                                     140 or less

·         At bedtime                                                    100 to 140